1) Jonathan Edwards—pastor in North Hampton, Massachusetts. He started the Great awakening. He believed there was a need for dependence on God’s grace and hell was paved with the skulls of unbaptized children.
2) Benjamin Franklin—born in MA. He moved to Philadelphia in 1720. He would play a big part in the founding of UPenn.
3) Michel-Guillaume de Crèvecoeur—a French settler who saw hnhow diverse the ethnicity and race of America became. He asked “What then is the American, the new man?”
4) George Whitefield—A gifted speaker who was a supporter of Jonathan Edwards during the Great Awakening. He got many to listen to his religious speeches.
5) John Peter Zenger—a newspaper printer who was charged for printing false information about the royal governor in New York. He believed he was innocent because the statements were true. He was found not guilty.
6) Phillis Wheatley—a slave girl who was brought to Boston when she was eight. She was improperly educated, but became a poet, rare in colonial America.
7) John Singleton Copley—a painter. He had to go to England to pursue his painting career because he would not have made money in the colonies. He was considered a loyalist during the revolution.
8) John Trumbull—born in conneticut. His painting career was discouraged by his father claiming that “Connecticut was not Athens.” He would need to go to London to be successful.
9) Charles Wilson Peale—a painter best known for his Washington portraits. He also ran a museum, stuffed birds, and practiced dentistry.
10) Benjamin West—a painter who went to London to find success. He was good friends with George III and he was the official court painter.
11) Jacobus Arminius—a Dutch theologian who preached that individual free will determined one’s eternal fate rather than predestination.
12) Andrew Hamilton—Zenger’s lawyer during the free press trial who defended Zenger by saying that if he was found guilty that all men would need to worry about their general freedoms.
13) Paxton Boys—group of Scots-Irish protesters in Pennsylvania. They challenged the Quaker’s Policy of leniency towards the Indians.
14) Great Awakening—a religious movement in the 1730’s-1740’s. It was started in MA by Jonathan Edwards.
15) Anglicans—members of the Church of England in America. It was one of two established religions in the colonies. It was used by the king for royal support in America.
16) Rack-renting—an increase in rent by merciless laird. This was forced onto the Scots when there was a spread of commercial farming in England.
17) Regulator Movement—protest by the Scots-Irish in North Carolina about the tolerance of the Indians by the government.
18) Old and new lights—divisions of the Congregational and Presbyterian churches during the awakening. The churches split into more sects, the major result being the Baptist church. Ministers disagreed about the emotionalism and theatrical antics.
19) Triangle trade—the trade in the colonies included materials imported from Africa and Europe in the Americas, and materials were sent back in return. For example, a captain starts in New England with rum, trades it for slaves in Africa, trades the slaves for molasses in the west indies, then bring it to the colonies to make rum and repeat over and over, gaining profit each step.
20) Molasses Act—Act passed by British Parliament that limited the colonists trading. The merchants did not stop trading but instead smuggled and bribed their away around the law, foreshadowing a revolution.
21) Scots-Irish—in 1775 they made up about 7% of the population. A non-English group that spoke English. They were not even Irish. They were Scots Lowlanders. They were transplanted to Northern Ireland. The Scottish Presbyterians were disliked by the Irish Catholics. Many then left Ireland and went to America and settled in the backcountry of the colonies.
22) Naval stores—Stores that contained highly valued naval equipment. England wanted to regain their title as king of the seas, so they wanted to gain control of the American supplies in the naval stores.
23) Praying towns— formed by the Puritans in New England. They were used to try to convert Native Americans living in the area to Puritanism. The Puritans did this to try and stop conflict with the neighboring Indians.
24) Almshouses—houses built for people struggling with poverty. In the 1730’s they were built in Philadelphia and New York. The poverty rate still remained lower than that of England’s
25) Jayle birds—Convicts who were displaced from London because the London jails were too full. They were able to start a new life.
26) Taverns—Places where people went to enjoy them selves. There were alcoholic beverages sold. There was a variety of people including village loafers and drunks. They were another cradle of democracy.
27) Congregational Church—the church branched off of the Puritan church that was established in all New England colonies except Rhode Island. The church was highly influential in Massachusetts.
28) Presbyterian—a branch of Protestantism that is closely related to Congregationalism. This was not officially recognized as a protestant religion at the time.
29) Arminians—followers of the Dutch theologian, Jacobus Arminius. They threatened the Calvinist ideas of predestination
30) Heresies—the teachings of Arminians were thought to be heresies against the church. These teachings pressured some churches to allow membership without con versions.
31) Old Lights—orthodox clergy men who were skeptical of the emotionalism and theatrical antics of the revivalists. The old lights stayed in their respective churches
32) New Lights—ministers who defended the Awakening. They supported the emotionalism and theatrical ideas of the awakening. The Congregationalists and Presbyterians split over the dispute and the major sect of supporters was Baptist.
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Iroquois League - Five New York area Indian tribes united in a confederation. They kept their independence, but got together in times of war.
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