Martin Luther: German friar whose protests against the Catholic church started the Reformation in 1517.
John Calvin: Creator of Calvinism , a branch of Christianity that became the dominant belief of New England puritans, Scottish Presbyterians, French Huguenots, and the Dutch reformed church.
“Institutes of the Christian Religion”: Calvin’s 1536 book that spelled out his basic doctrines. His ideas included an all-knowing, all-good, God as well as election of the saved.
Puritans: Those who wanted a total purification and de-catholization of the church. Some felt that only “visible saints” should be admitted to the church.
Separatists: The most dedicated puritans who were appalled by the fact that anyone could be admitted to the church and decided to break away from the Church of England
Captain Myles Standish: A “soldier of fortune” who would lend the Pilgrims indispensable service as a Indian fighter and negotiator.
Mayflower; The ship the Pilgrims took to the new World. The journey took 65 days, and for whatever reason, the pilgrims arrived near New England, instead of Virginia.
Pilgrims: The name later given to the Separatist Puritans who settled at Plymouth rock.
Plymouth Bay: The eventual site the Pilgrims chose to land at. The Area was outside the domain of the Virginia company, so the settlers were the equivalent of squatters.
Mayflower Compact: A document signed by 41 adult males on the mayflower, which was an agreement to form a crude government and submit to the well of a majority.
William Bradford: A well-educated leader of the Pilgrims.
Great English Migration: A migration in the 1630’s of nearly 70000 English refugees. In fact, only around 20000 went to New England, as the rest were drawn in by the warm and fertile West Indies.
Massachusetts Bay Colony: A group of less extreme puritans who, in 1629, got a charter from the Ma. Bay company and settled in Massachusetts bay. The nearly 1000 of them took the charter with them, thereby taking themselves out of the reach of royal authority.
John Winthrop: Governor of the Bay Colony for 19 years. An attorney and Lord in England, he proved to be a successful new world leader.
Protestant work Ethic: The Puritans Idea that they had a covenant with God to build a functional and holy colony.
Anne Hutchinson: A mother of 14 children who challenged the Puritan orthodoxy. She believed that the truly saved need not obey the law. Banished from Bay colony, she was killed by Indians in New York.
Roger Williams: A Salem Minister and extreme puritan who wanted to tally break from the Church of England. He condemned the Bay colonies charter for letting them appropriate land from the Indians without fair payment. He was banished in 1635 but he escaped to the Rhode Island area. Then he built a Baptist Church and established complete freedom of religion requiring no oaths, church attendance, or taxes to support a state church.
Rhode Island: The liberal colony that Roger Williams founded. It began as a squatter colony for malcontents and exiles, but achieved a charter in 1644.
Connecticut River Valley Colony: Began in 1636 in the Hartford area by a group of Boston puritans led by Thomas Hooker.
Hartford, Fundamental Orders: In 1639, the Hartford settlers drafted a document called the “Fundamental orders”. It was like a modern constitution, establishing an area democratically controlled by its land-owning citizens.
New Haven: Started in 1638 by Puritans who wanted to set up a close church-government alliance. However, they had no charter and were merged with other settlements in the Connecticut valley.
Enclosure (movement): Was the practice of English farmers fencing in land and using it for pasture. They know longer needed as much help and as such a lot of their old labor relocated to the colonies.
Squanto: The Wampanoag Indian who had been kidnapped by English earlier in his life and had traveled to England and later Newfoundland, in the process learning English. When he returned to North America he discovered that his tribe had been wiped out by plague, and helped the Pilgrims survive their first winters.
Massasoit: Wampanoag chief who signed a treaty with the Pilgrims in 1621
and celebrated thanksgiving with them.
Pequot War: A war between the Pequot Indians, and the English militia and their Narragansett allies. It nearly annihilated the Pequot people.
(1675 Metacom’s War) Metacom: Massasoit’s son who formed an intertribal alliance to assault English villages. He was initially successful destroying some 12 puritan towns entirely, but the end of the war left thousands of Indians, including Philip, dead.
New England Confederation: An alliance of 4 Puritan colonies (Bay, Plymouth, New Haven, and the Valley settlements) for the purpose of defense against the Indians, French, and Dutch and inter-colonial legal issues.
Dominion of New England: The King’s version of the New England Confederation. Including New England and eventually New Jersey and New York. Also had the purpose of better defense and efficiency in the administration of the Navigation laws, imposing trade restrictions on Non-English imports and exports.
England’s Glorious Revolution: A bloodless revolution in England that deposed James II in favor of Dutch William III and Mary, daughter of James II. Signaled the end of the Dominion of New England.
Dutch East and West India Company: The East India company was a huge profitable empires in the east indies, supporting at times up to 10,000 men and 190 ships. The West India Company was much smaller and more focused on raiding than trading, though it established outposts in Africa and sugar plantations in Brazil.
Henry Hudson: An explorer hired to sail Northeast who instead ascended the Hudson river trying to find a shortcut through the continent.
New Netherlands: This colony was settled in the Hudson river area by the Dutch in 1623.
New Amsterdam: Later New York city, it was a company town run in the interest of stockholders. Very despotic and intolerant had poor relations with the Indians.
Peter Stuyvesant: The despotic, intolerant, but capable, final Director General of New Amsterdam. He also invaded New Sweden and captured their main fort, absorbing them into New Netherlands. He had to surrender Amsterdam to the Duke of York because of shortages of ammunition in 1664.
New York: Inherited the Dutch sense autocracy, which when combined with corrupt governors, resulted in certain families wielding immense power.
Quakers: despised by most, name derived from reports that they quaked when under deep religious emotion officially known as the Religious Society of Friends. They refused to pay taxes or clergy, met in simple houses, did not acknowledge titles and would take no oaths. They were also committed pacifists.
William Penn: A wellborn Quaker who in 1681 secured a immense grant of land named Pennsylvania. It was well and truthfully advertised encouraging large amounts of immigrants. Penn Bought land from the Indians for Pennsylvania and allowed Quakers full tolerance. Penn’s regime was liberal, including a representative assembly and no state church. No provisions were made for civil defense either.
In the middle colonies several features were held in common. Soil was fertile, land was broad, and rivers played a vital role. Lumber was a useful commodity and they were, in general, a midway between small farm New England and vast plantation size Southern Colonies.