Chap. 23 Vocab
1. Ulysses S. Grant – Republican nominee as well as the victor of the election of 1868. He constantly reminded citizens that he won the war for them.
2. Horatio Seymour – The democratic nominee in the election of 1868. He criticized military Reconstruction and also became less popular when he announced that he did not support greenback (paper) money.
3. “Boss” Tweed – A leader who ran a local political district. He used corruption and rigged elections to get money and ensure political power for him and his friends. He was prosecuted by Samuel J. Tilden and later died in jail.
4. Crédit Mobelier – the company that was constructing the trans-continental railroad. It sub-hired itself and got paid double. They gave stock to congressmen and later a newspaper published this and the congressmen went down. Grant’s name was scarred.
5. Horace Greeley – the editor of the New York Tribune that was nominated as the candidate for the Liberal Republican Party in the election of 1872. The democrats also strangely supported him.
6. “Hard Money” – The economic policies that the wealthy and bankers favored as the money was backed by gold and the amount was stable.
7. “Cheap-Money” – Paper money created to cause inflation so the debtors could easily pay off their debts.
8. Rutherford B. Hayes – Republican nominee in the election of 1876. He was called the “Great Unknown” and was neutral in the wars between Conkling and Blaine wars within the Republican Party.
9. Samuel Tilden – The democratic nominee in the election of 1876. He was famous for his prosecuting of Boss Tweed. He got 184 electoral votes, while he needed 185 to win.
10. Compromise of 1877 – Got the North Rutherford B. Hayes elected as a Republican president. Got the South a pledge that Rutherford B. Hayes would remove the military occupation of the South, and end to Reconstruction, and money that would be spent on the Texas-Pacific railroad.
11. Civil Rights Cases (1883) – The cases the deemed the Civil Rights act of 1875 unconstitutional and prohibited only GOVERNMENT violations of civil rights, individuals could do anything.
12. Plessey v. Ferguson – This Supreme Court case states that separate but equal facilities for races were legal.
13. “coolies” – The nickname that the Irish had for the tens of thousands of Chinese in the U.S. in the post Civil War era.
14. “birthright citizenship” – This held that the Fourteenth Amendment gave rights to anyone born in the U.S. not by their nationality.
15. James Garfield – Republican nominee and winner of the presidential election of 1880. He was a “dark horse” and won partly because he was from Ohio. Charles J. Guiteau assassinated him as Garfield’s Sec. of State was James Blaine and Guiteau supported Conkling.
16. Chester Arthur – VP to Garfield so he became president when Garfield was shot. He was reform-minded.
17. Pendleton Act of 1883 – Also called the “Magna Carta of Civil Reform”. It said that you had to have merit to get a good job, not just know people.
18. James Blaine – Republican nominee for election in 1884. The reform Republicans didn’t like him and were called “mugwumps” since they went with the Democrats on this issue.
19. Grover Cleveland – The Democratic nominee in 1848. This election produced a lot of mudslinging and he was accused of having a lovechild who was 8 at the time. Although there were rumors, he still came out victorious.
20. Grand Army of the Republic – They pushed several bills through congress to try to give Veterans pensions. Cleveland vetoed many of these bills.
21. “pork-barrel” – Bills that Cleveland wanted to spend the surplus on. They benefit a specific district.
22. Benjamin Harrison – The Republican nominee in 1888. He won a very close race against Grover Cleveland (who came back 4 years later).
23. Thomas Reed – The Speaker of the House who ignored the quorum and passed many Republican bills such as liberally giving pensions to veterans as well as purchasing more silver.
24. “Billion Dollar Congress” – This was the name for the congress presided over by Thomas Reed that was the first to dole out $1 billion.
25. McKinley Tariff – The highest peacetime tariff rate ever. It hiked rates up to 48%. Business men loved it and farmers hated it.
26. “Populists” – the followers of the new political party called the Populist Party or the People’s party. They were unhappy farmers that came from the Farmers’ Alliance.
27. Andrew Carnegie – Man who owned the largest steel company in the U.S. His workers once rebelled against him, but detective’s were called in.
28. “grandfather clause” – Said black’s could only vote if their Grandfather had. Which left MOST of the population unable to vote.
29. Jim Crow laws – These were state enacted legislation that legalized segregation.
30. William Jennings Bryan – the 30 year old spokesman for silver and “cheap money”.
31. Sherman Silver Purchase Act – This increased the amount of silver that the United States had to buy every year.
32. J.P. Morgan – A banker who decided to lean $65 million to the gov’t through Grover Cleveland. This made Cleveland seem less of a “Common Man’s President”
33. Wilson-Gorman Tariff – Lowered the tariff, but put a 2% income tax on those that made more than $4000.
Chap. 23 Vocab