Chapter 21 Vocab 13th
  1. Bull Run – The first battle of the Civil war that earned Gen. Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson his nickname and also ended the short war theories. Most citizens were like tailgaters at a sports game.
  2. George McClellan – A great organizer and planner who was put in charge of readying the U.S. army. He was very slow and Lincoln ultimately forced him to take charge.

3. Army of the Potomac – The union army that was greatly influenced by George McClellan, who led them to the battle at Richmond, VA, the confederate capital.
4. Jeb Stuart – A confederate officer whose cavalry rode completely around McClellan’s.
5. Peninsula Campaign – The campaign by McClellan that moved through the James and York rivers.
6. Robert E. Lee – Confederate general who unofficially got McClellan demoted with his victory in the Seven Days’ Battles.
7. Blockade-running – A system in which goods were smuggled through the North’s loose blockades.
8. Merrimack – A confederate ironclad ship built to pose a threat to their multiple blockades.
9. Monitor – The northern ironclad response to the Merrimack. The ships battles in Chesapeake Bay leaving the Monitor a victor and showing that the days of wooden ships were over.
10. John Pope – A general put in charge by Lincoln to replace McClellan. He and the Union Army lost at the Second Battle of Bull Run. He was then fired and McClellan was put back in charge.
11. Antietam – A scene of battle in which the North found the South’s plans ahead of time and crushed them. This was a pivitol point of the war as it stopped European nations from joining in on the South’s side and showed that the North could also win.
12. Emancipation Proclamation – A proclamation by Lincoln to free the slaves. He could not actually legally do this, and because the Confederacy was a “foreign” country, they didn’t have to listen to him. This concept was later seen with the 13th amendment.
13. Border States – The Emancipation Proclamation was not valid here, as Lincoln wanted them to side with the United States, and not with the South.
14. Thirteenth Amendment – This amendment legally freed the slaves, unlike the Emancipation Proclamation.
15. “home guards” – White men that were previously soldiers that were stationed to watch-over the slaves in fear of insurrection.
16. A.E. Burnside – The Union general who invented sideburns and was put in charge after Antietam. He was defeated at Fredricksburg, VA and was then removed from his seat.
17. Joe Hooker – Another Union General placed in charge after Fredricksburg, but lost to Lee at Lee’s greatest battle in Chancellorsville, VA.
18. Chancellorsville – Often called Lee’s most brilliant battle, Hooker and the Union army lost, while Lee and the Confederates won. Jackson, however, was shot by his own men and died a few days later.
19. Gettysburg – One of the largest battles of the Civil War, George Meade was placed in charge of the Union army. On the 3rd day, the North clearly was the victor and it was clear that soon (2 years) they would be the victors. Lincoln also gave his famous Gettysburg Address, used to boost morale.
20. Ulysses S. Grant – Lincoln’s NEWEST General. He had been slightly above average for most of his career and had won Unconditional surrender out in the Western theatre.
21. Shiloh – Grant’s first losing battle in the West. It also showed that he was a fighter, and would not easily give up.
22. Vicksburg – This occurred a day after Gettysburg and included Grant’s surrounding of Vicksburg and taking of both Vicksburg. And the capital of Jackson, MS.
23. William Tecumseh Sherman – Union General who pushed from Chattanooga, TN to Atlanta, GA where he captured it. Atlanta was then burnt to the ground. He then declared total war and destroyed everything from Atlanta to Savannah.
24. “total war” – This was Declared by W. T. Sherman and meant that everything in the way was to be destroyed including civilian property.
25. Anaconda Plan – Winfield Scott’s plan to cut the Confederate states down the Mississippi river.
26. Salmon Chase – Lincoln’s Secretary of the Treasury who led criticism against him.
27. Clement L. Vallandigham – Also known as the “Man without a country”. He supported the south, was then tried for treason, so he fled there, then went to Canada, then lost governor of Ohio, then returned to Ohio.
28. Copperheads – Lincoln’s strongest opposers. These people came from the “Butternut Region” of S. Illinois, Indiana and Ohio.
29. Andrew Johnson – Put on the bill with Lincoln to attract the War Democrats. He was a previous slave-owner from Tennessee.
30. Furlough – Many soldiers were given time off to vote for Lincoln at the polls, while others cast their ballots at the war front.
31. “Bayonet vote” – The vote of all of the soldiers that showed that Lincoln vanquished McClellan, his opponent in the election.
32. Wilderness Campaign – A series of battles led by Grant in the wilderness of Virginia.
33. Appotomox Courthouse – The location of Confederate General Robert E. Lee’s final surrender to Union forces and Ulysses S. Grant.
34. John Wilkes Booth – Lincoln’s Assassin who shot him a few days after the war in the Ford’s theatre in Washington.
35. English Reform Bill of 1867 – A bill passed in Britain that made them become a true political Democracy. This was greatly influenced by the Union victory of the Civil War.
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