Chapter 20 Vocab 14th

1.Lincoln's Cabinet: composed of his major rivals for the Republican nomination for President in 1860; William Seward as Sec. of State for the whole term

2.Fort Sumter: site of the opening engagement of the Civil War; on April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861; Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day

3.Border States: Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland were crucial for both sides, as they would have almost doubled the manufacturing capacity of the South and increased its supply of horses and mules by half

4."Johnny Reb": nickname for a typical Confederate soldier

5."Billy Yank": nickname for average Northern/Union soldier

6.Advantages for the South: only had to fight to a draw to win, since all it had to do was keep them from invading and taking over all of its territory; had the most talented officers and most had been trained in a military-style upbringing; any top young men attended military schools like West Point, The Citadel, or VMI

7.Disadvantages for the South: handicapped by a shortage of factories and manufacturing plants; found itself with a shortage of shoes, uniforms, blankets, clothing, and food, which didn't reach soldiers due to supply problems

8.Advantages for the North: had a huge economy, many more men available to fight, and it controlled the sea

9.Disadvantages for the North: its officers weren't as well-trained as some on the opposing side

10.Robert E. Lee: a top graduate of West Point & was an exceptional soldier in the U.S. Army for thirty-two years; Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force

11.Thomas Jackson: nicknamed "Stonewall" at the battle of first Bull Run for standing courageously against union fire; was a confederate general who was known for his fearlessness in leading rapid marches bold flanking movements and furious assaults; his own men accidently mortally wounded him

12.Ulysses S. Grant: an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States; achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War; defeated Lee

13.King Cotton: term used to describe the dominance of the South's cash crop on politics, agriculture, and society prior to the Civil War in the Ante-Bellum South

14.King Wheat & King Corn: these crops were significant to the North; during the Civil War, the North was blessed with great weather & produced bountiful crops when the British suffered a series of bad harvests & so they were forced to import huge quantities of grain from America - if the British had broken the blockade to get cotton, they would have would have cut off this precious granary

15.Trent Affair: Confederacy sent emissaries James Mason to Britain and John Slidell to France to lobby for recognition in 1861; Union ship captured both men and took them to Boston as prisoners; British were angry and Lincoln ordered their release

16.CSS Alabama: British warship used to aid the Confederates by looting and sinking many Union vessels; never sailed into a Confederate base, thus using a loophole to help the South

17.Charles Francis Adams: American envoy whose shrewd diplomacy helped keep Britain neutral during the Civil War; persuaded Britain not to build any more ships for the Confederacy, since they might someday be used against England

18.Dominion of Canada: The loose confederation of Ontario, Quebec, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, created by the British North America Act in 1867 to help a group of British subjects defend themselves against the U.S

19.Archduke Maximilian: Napoleon III of France also installed a puppet government in Mexico City, putting this man as emperor of Mexico; after the war, the U.S. threatened violence, and Napoleon left this man at the hands of a Mexican firing squad

20.Lincoln's Unconstitutional Acts: increased size of standing army without legislative authority, imprisoned 13,000 people, defied supreme court b/c suspended the write of habeus corpus; justified his actions by saying that such acts weren't permanent, and that he had to do those things in order to preserve the Union

21."Three-Hundred Dollar Men": men who paid a three hundred dollar fine or hired someone to fight in their place in the draft

22.Draft Riots: were a series of violent disturbances in New York City in 1863 that were the culmination of discontent with new laws passed by Congress to draft men to fight in the ongoing American Civil War

23."bounty brokers": those who enticed people to enlist in the army by giving them a bonus sum of money

24."bounty boys": slippery Northern men who collected fees for enlisting in the Union Army and then deserted

25."a rich man's war but a poor man's fight": slogan to describe Civil War; rich men stood to lose everything they had if slavery were ended; a poor man though stood to gain very little if they won; but the law made it possible for a man to buy his way out of military service

26.Morrill Tariff Act: passed by Congress in 1861 to meet the cost of the war; raised the taxes on shipping from 5 to 10 percent however later needed to increase to meet the demanding cost of the war; raked in millions of dollars

27.Jay Cooke and Company: private banking house that the Treasury forced to market its bonds; it got 3/8 of 1%; later went bankrupt

28.National Banking Act: established a system of national charters for banks; along with Abraham Lincoln's issuance of "greenbacks," raised money for the federal government in the American Civil War by enticing banks to buy federal bonds and taxed state bonds out of existence

29.National Banking System: authorized by Congress in 1863 to establish a standard bank currency; banks that joined the system could buy bonds and issue paper money; first significant step toward a national bank

30.Economic Impact of War on North: emerged from the Civil War more prosperous than before, since new factories had been formed and a millionaire class was born for the first time in history

31.Economic Impact of War on South: ruined by the war, as transportation collapsed and supplies of everything became scarce, and by the end of the war, they claimed only 12% of the national wealth as opposed to 30% before the war; per capita income was greatly decreased

32."shoddy millionnaires": scornful term for northern manufacturers who made quick fortunes out of selling cheaply made shoes and other inadequate goods to the us army

33."fifty-niners": nickname given to the men who rushed to Pennsylvania once oil was discovered there

34."government girls": women who worked in the Treasury and War Departments as well as the post office during the war to fill the positions left by men in the North

35.Dr. Elizabeth Blackwell: America's first female physician; helped organize the U.S. Sanitary commission to assist the Union armies in the field; commission work helped many women acquire the skills and self-confidence that would propel the women's rights movement after the war

36.Clara Barton: nurse during the Civil War; started the American Red Cross

37.Dorthea Dix: tireless reformer, who worked mightily to improve the treatment of the mentally ill; appointed superintendant of women nurses for the Union forces

38.Sally Thompkins: a Confederate women who founded small hospitals and clinics in the South; called the Clara Barton of the South

39.Edwin Stanton: Secretary of War appointed by Lincoln. President Andrew Johnson dismissed him in spite of the Tenure of Office Act, and as a result, Congress wanted Johnson's impeachment.

40.Laird Rams: Two confederate warships being constructed in British shipyards, they were eventually seized by the British for British use to remain neutral in the Civil War.

41.Butternut Region: Southern counties of Ohio, Indiana, and Illinois where many former Southerners had settled and who still harbored pro-Southern sympathies. Did not want to fight an anti-slavery war.

42.Martial Law: the body of law imposed by the military over civilian affairs (usually in time of war or civil crisis)

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