Chapter 2 Vocab 13th

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Iroquois League - Five New York area Indian tribes united in a confederation. They kept their independence, but got together in times of war.

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John Rolfe : Husband of Pocahontas. He was killed by Powhatans in a surprise raid in 1622. He devoted much of his new world life to perfecting a saleable form of tobacco.

Disease: Main destroyer of Indian people and cultures. Epidemics of measles and smallpox totally destroyed some Indian groups, while in other tribes killed the elders who kept their history and culture alive.

Tobacco: The main cash crop of Virginia. It was bad in that it ruined the soil and tied the economy to the price of one crop. It also promoted the use of many acres of large plantations and thus a need for lots of new labor, and as a consequence, slavery.

Jamestown Africans: 1619 was the first recorded incident of Africans being sold in Virginia. Some 20 were brought by a Dutch warship. Their status as slave, servant, or free is unknown.

Virginia House of Burgesses: In 1619, representative self Government was born in Virginia. The Virginia Company let the settlers summon an assembly, called the House of Burgesses. James I, troubled by this and other company matters, revoked the charter of the Virginia company in 1624 and claimed Virginia as a royal colony.

Lord Baltimore: Founded Maryland in 1634 for Financial gain and as a refuge for Catholics.

Maryland Colony: Started in 1634 by 200 settlers. Was envisioned as a Catholic feudal domain at the start. Catholics ended up being greatly outnumbered by protestants.

Indentured servant: Poor people from England who would have someone pay for their passage to America and work for a number of years as their servant there to pay off their debt.

Maryland’s Acts of Toleration: Passed in 1649 they guaranteed toleration to All Christian but death to those who didn’t believe in Christ’s divinity.

Barbados Slave Code: A code made in 1661 that denied any basic rights to slaves and gave their masters near complete control over their lives, punishment, and death. In 1696 a version of the code was adopted in Carolina.

Charles I beheaded: King Charles dismissed parliament in 1629, ruled alone without calling them for a decade, and when he finally called him back the members rebelled, and after a civil war defeated and beheaded him in 1649.

Oliver Cromwell: Military leader of the Parliamentary side in the English Civil war, served as Lord Protector after the parliamentarians won.

Charles the II: Son of Charles the I, was restored to the throne in 1660. Carolina was named after him.

Carolinas: Founded in 1870 by the 8 Lord proprietors (8 of Charles court favorites) Carolina prospered by strong economic ties with the West Indies. Many settlers came from the West Indies, bringing slavery with them. They also enlisted the help of Indian tribes in enslaving the Indians enemy tribes.

North Carolina: Was more democratic than aristocratic and separated from Carolina in 1712. At first it did not import many slaves, but shared a history of bloody relations with the Indians with its brothers to the south.

Rice: Rice emerged as a principal export crop of the Carolinas, and as a result Carolinians paid heavily for African slaves with experience in rice cultivation.

Iroquois Confederacy:
The Confederacy was A league of 5 nations, the Oneidas, Onondagas, Mohawks, Cayugas and the Senecas. According to legend, the Confederacy was founded by Deganawidan and Hiawatha in the late 1500’s. They enjoyed supremacy for a while, but They chose to ally with the British in the Revolutionary war, and were left in tatters by the end of it.

Longhouse: The building block of Iroquois society, generally 20 ft. wide, but nearly 2-8 hundred feet long. Each longhouse supported 2 nuclear families, connected through the maternal line. Men left their mothers to join their wives longhouse when married.

Handsome Lake: The Iroquois did not adjust well to reservation life. In 1799 The Iroquois prophet Handsome Lake said he had a vision where he had seen angelic figures in Iroquois garb who told him that their moral decline must end. He preached this to the Iroquois until his death in 1815, and his teachings survive in longhouse religion to this day.

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